By Yasmina Abouzzohour
Oman’s Sultan Qaboos bin Mentioned Al Mentioned died at age 79 on January 10. The sultan, who dominated Oman since he deposed his father with British help in 1970, had no youngsters or siblings, and subsequently no inheritor obvious. The absence of a transparent line of succession has lengthy anxious Omanis and allies as Qaboos’ well being deteriorated over the past decade.
Nevertheless, the succession occurred easily, with the Royal Household Council appointing Qaboos’ cousin — Haitham bin Tariq Al Mentioned — inside 24 hours of Qaboos’ dying, on the late sultan’s advice. Haitham bin Tariq, 65, was the minister of heritage and tradition from 2002 till his ascension to the throne. Below Qaboos, he had additionally served as secretary common for the Ministry of Overseas Affairs (1994-2002) and as undersecretary for the Ministry of Overseas Affairs in political affairs (1986-1994).
Qaboos’ sickness and dying shook Omanis: He was trendy Oman’s founding father and held an overwhelming function in Omani home and international affairs. He headed the state, authorities, and navy, and directed a international coverage centered on deft diplomacy in a fraught area.
However his strong rule, Oman below Qaboos was plagued with financial hardship and a closed political scene that led to varied episodes of dissidence. The economic system’s limitations and the expectations of a altering inhabitants will seemingly trigger protests to multiply within the close to future. The brand new sultan should subsequently give attention to job creation, diversifying Oman’s economic system away from pure assets, and introducing managed political reforms.
Constructing trendy Oman
Qaboos deposed his father Mentioned bin Taimur on July 23, 1970. He took over an impoverished nation with a weak state and a Britain-focused isolationist international coverage, missing in infrastructure, hospitals, and faculties. Important proof reveals that the British had engineered the coup due to large opposition to Mentioned’s rule and his reticence to modernize Oman. By that time, Mentioned — who had contained necessary tribal dissidence in the course of the Jabal Akhdar wars — was dealing with a region-wide rise up in Dhofar and feared that modernizing the nation would incite additional dissidence. In contrast, Qaboos, who was educated in Sandhurst in the UK and who had been positioned below home arrest in Salalah on Mentioned’s orders, offered a secure alternative as a sultan who would seemingly embrace modernization.
Utilizing rents from pure assets (petroleum, pure fuel, and minerals) properly, Qaboos modernized and reworked Oman, growing its infrastructure, healthcare, and academic methods, in addition to numerous income-generating sectors (together with tourism, fisheries, and agriculture). In an try and lower Oman’s dependence on oil, he centered on revenue diversification, industrialization, growing pure fuel manufacturing, and privatization. Below his orders, a challenge to Omanize the private and non-private labor power was launched to deal with excessive unemployment charges.
By way of politics, the brand new sultan created a whole authorities with new ministries, assigning senior positions to members of the royal household whereas guaranteeing that the latter retained a comparatively restricted function in authorities in comparison with different Gulf ruling households. Qaboos went on to claim his authority and consolidate his powers. On the finish of 1972, he took on the roles of prime minister, supreme commander of the armed forces, in addition to ministers of inside, protection, and finance. In 1981, he based the Consultative Meeting, a bicameral consultant physique which in 2003 turned elected by way of common as a substitute of restricted suffrage. In 1996, Qaboos launched Oman’s de facto structure, the Primary Legislation. This was adopted by the creation in 1997 of the Council of State, whose members had been all appointed by the sultan, to help the sultan in implementing his improvement, financial, and cultural methods.
Below Qaboos, Oman’s infrastructure and panorama reworked and flourished. Qaboos constructed worldwide airports, upgraded and added to the roads and port networks, and erected new buildings for places of work and shops; importantly, he didn’t neglect the Imamate area within the inside, nor Dhofar within the south, in favor of the coastal area as his predecessor had achieved. He additionally created faculties and universities, constructed artwork facilities and an opera, and invested in Oman’s healthcare system and social providers. Qaboos additionally spent to enhance an already enough navy, which offered jobs for Omanis.
Lastly, the late sultan deserted his predecessor’s isolationism and opened Oman to the remainder of the world, adopting a impartial international coverage that reworked Oman right into a key regional participant. He strengthened the nation’s ties to the opposite Gulf monarchies, which fashioned the Gulf Cooperation Council in 1981. Oman maintained relations with Qatar and Iran, regardless of Saudi and Emirati pressures after a spat in 2016. Qaboos even acted as a mediator between Iran and america within the 2013 negotiations over what turned the Joint Complete Plan of Motion, or Iran nuclear deal. In 2018, he met with Israel’s prime minister and stays the one Gulf chief to have achieved so publicly.
Triggers of dissent: A struggling economic system
Though some sources painting Oman as having skilled little or no political instability, there was political unrest within the sultanate within the type of rebellions, protests, and strikes. Earlier in Oman’s trendy historical past — throughout Mentioned’s reign and at the start of Qaboos’ — opposition actions had been secessionist or sought to overthrow the regime altogether. Extra just lately, dissidence was principally motivated by a want for political and socioeconomic reform.
Since deposing his father, Qaboos efficiently contained a collection of strikes in 1970 (in Nizwa, Rustaq, Ibri, and within the Fahud oil subject), a violent rebellion in Matra in 1971, and the second half of the Dhofar Insurrection (1970-75). The authorities additionally reportedly foiled two Islamist plots in 1994 and 2005 earlier than they unfolded, in keeping with official sources. Financial hardship has been an necessary set off of dissent within the final decade, together with in the course of the 2011 uprisings, the 2012-13 post-Arab Spring protests, and unemployment protests in 2017-18.
Certainly, unemployment is a crucial difficulty for the sultanate, the place 16.9% of nationals had been unemployed in 2017 — and over 30% for younger individuals. Moreover, as a result of oil exports have been the main income generator in Oman since 1967 (see Determine 1) the rise and fall of oil costs impacts the economic system. The latter suffered in recent times because of the international collapse in oil costs (which crashed to $47.11 per barrel in December 2014, then to $45.69 in August 2015, and at last to $29.70 in January 2016). Due to Oman’s comparatively smaller reserves (see Determine 2), this resulted in a lower in its GDP development from 4.98% in 2016 to 0.267% in 2017. The regime tried to deal with this difficulty by chopping public spending (by elevating taxes and reforming the subsidy system) however reined again its efforts after they triggered protests in 2017-18.
Determine 1: Oman: Income minus manufacturing value of oil, % of GDP
Supply: Writer’s calculations, utilizing knowledge from the World Knowledge Financial institution.
Determine 2: MENA area confirmed oil reserves, 2017
Supply: Writer’s determine utilizing knowledge from the World Knowledge Financial institution
Outlook: A brand new sultan’s first steps
The nation’s financial struggles and its closed political sphere have led to a number of opposition occasions previously and can seemingly result in additional protests below Haitham bin Tariq. To reduce dissidence, the brand new sultan should give attention to bolstering the nation’s struggling economic system and adapting its political scene to raised swimsuit a altering inhabitants.
At the moment, Oman’s economic system is steady however low-performing; step one to strengthening will probably be designing a plan to diversify it away from pure assets. Falling oil costs and the truth that Oman’s oil reserves have confirmed to be decrease than initially believed makes Oman susceptible. At a restoration fee of 700,000 barrel per day, Omani oil reserves will seemingly be depleted inside 20 years (that is based mostly on a calculation utilizing knowledge from Petroleum Improvement Oman, which lists present oil reserves within the nation at 5.373 billion barrels). Extra oil could also be found in Oman, however this won’t have an effect on this estimated timeframe of reserve depletion except it’s found in nice portions. What does this imply for the regime? It should adapt to a post-oil economic system earlier than different GCC states with greater reserves, reminiscent of Qatar and the United Arab Emirates.
The regime has already taken steps in the direction of diversification by strengthening non-oil sectors; these steps have led to barely much less reliance on oil (see Determine 3), however this isn’t sufficient. The tourism sector, for instance, accounted for two.59% of GDP in 2018. The regime can increase this quantity by facilitating the visa necessities for extra nationalities, which might enhance the variety of guests. The regime should additionally give attention to fostering higher employment alternatives for Omanis. Creating extra jobs and pursuing Omanization alone won’t be enough. Quite, the regime should particularly practice Omani nationals in skillsets in non-oil sectors.
Determine 3: Oman’s GDP, in keeping with sort of financial exercise (%)
Supply: Writer’s graph utilizing knowledge from the World Financial institution.
On the political entrance, the regime should adapt its habits to meet up with the transformations its inhabitants is present process. Small civil society pockets are growing, and younger, educated persons are disillusioned with the regime’s apparent reluctance to hold by way of the reforms promised previously. As a primary step, the regime should change the way in which it makes use of repression. The Omani regime has intensified its efforts to suppress free speech since 2012, arresting activists and passing legal guidelines that make political critique unlawful. But, brash and overt authoritarianism is much less acceptable within the Omani context of the 21st century, as could be seen by way of on-line petitions, elevated participation within the 2011 elections, and the disdain in the direction of the regime’s repressive habits within the 2012-15 protests.